Unwavering Feel of Lake Oku, Its Historic Clawed Frog and Myths

Besides being the only known habitat of the critically endangered Xenopus longipes (Lake Oku Clawed Frog) which is exclusively aquatic, and Phrynobatrachus njiomock (the Puddle Frog), Lake Oku is obsessed with rare plants and incredible dragon flies, aquatic invertebrates and bizarre stories that greatly fascinate tourists and researchers.

Oku clawed frog. Credit: ZSL

Lake Oku

Located some close to 20 kilometres away from Elak-Oku in the Northwest Region of Cameroon, this extraordinary crater lake , which finds itself within the Kilum-Ijim Plant Life Sanctuary plays host to aquatic snails, water scorpions,  African Black Duck (Anas sparsa).and drongon flies amongst others of high interest to researchers and lovers of nature.

Then  the aesthetically appealing surrounding forest with rare trees like the Dovyalis cameroonensis, Prunus Africana and critically endangered Oxyanthus okuensis that invigorate the environment also serving as a perching point for the Preuss’ Guenon monkeys (Cercopithecus preussi), and smaller mammals like shrews, mice, rats, bats and genet cats and forest birds such as Bannerman’s Touraco.

A little walk from the lake to the surrounding forest, will uncover thrilling chameleons and reptiles like lizard and the harmless snake, Bothrolycus ater.

Besides its biodiversity, the surrounding villages have mythical and inspirational stories that are very appealing to the ears; you have stories about the supernatural and healing powers of the lake, the lake’s ability to empower and accept newly coroneted traditional authorities into the the throne,

Accordingly, if the potential Fon is the right person for the post, ancestors will accept the goat and hold it beneath. But if the goat floats on top of the lake, then the ancestors have refused his enthronement.

Taking time off the bustling and hustling in the city to have a feel of this lake and its characteristic surroundings is a whole lot of good to your nerves and health in general.

All you need do is obtain a ticket from the office of the Conservator of the Kilum-Ijim Plant Life Sanctuary at fcfa 6000, 3000 and 1500 for foreigners, foreigners resident in Cameroon and Cameroonians respectively plus an extra  FCFA 2000, if you want to use your camera, bike or car.  At the lake, you may choose to swim.  You may also want to get to the Oku flank of the Sanctuary to have a magnificent panoramic view of the lake and crops growing in the region such as cocoyams, coffee and corn. At the end of it all, you would go home promising to testify of the goodness of your visit to the world.

By B. Shancho Ndimuh

 

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Achieving Cameroon’s Biodiversity Conservation Target; More Haste Less Speed

Cameroon is undoubtedly one of the richest countries in Africa in term of biological diversity. Statistics from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre indicates that  the country is host to some 1661 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles and at least 8260 species of vascular plants distributed across its over 21,245,000 hectare of forest land.

Cognizant of the veritable role of the forest and its resources in the socio-economic development of the country, the Cameroon Government has since 1974 developed and or ratified a number of policies, laws and regulatory frameworks geared towards ensuring forest protection and biodiversity conservation.

Most of these policies and regulatory frameworks, which have turned out to be the modus operandi for the sustainable management of the country’s natural resources were a culmination of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. The immediate step by the Cameroon Government after the Summit was the creation of  the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in 1992, two years later, what is simply  known today as the 1994 Forestry Law was enacted  to regulate wildlife, forest resources and fisheries. To further demonstrate her steadfastness in the protection of her forest resources, Government in 1996 created the National Environment Management Plan (NEMP) aimed at ensuring that at least 30 % of the national territory is covered by permanent forests. Here again, the country is also making great strides with over 33 protected areas created and over 22 % of the national territory already covered by permanent forests.

Government’s efforts in the sustainable management of Cameroon’s over 33 protected areas is still really epileptic heightening anthropogenic threats, which are eaten deep into the fabric of these protected areas that if urgent actions are not taken, the country will be left with protected areas that have very little or nothing to show for in term of forest resources.

Firstly, the management plan, which is supposed to state clearly the purpose of the protected area and what it needs to achieve to fulfil that purpose either comes several years after the creation of the protected area or is not even produced at all. We have the  Kilum Ijum Plant Life Sanctuary in the Northwest Region which is at the level of drafting a letter to the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife to initiate the process of establishing a management plan 13 years after creation; the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary created since 2014 still en route to establishing a management plan; the Kimbi Fungom National Park created in 2015 and a host of others.

Even when national and international conservation organizations step in to assist the Government facilitate the process, administrative bottle necks and the slowness of the government machinery still stifles their efforts. For example, the Conservator of the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary in collaboration with the Environment and Rural Development Foundation (ERuDeF) and her international partners submitted a letter to the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife last April, 2017 requesting the putting in place of a technical committee for the elaboration and validation of a Management Plan for Tofala. This committee was put in place last week, five months after.

Also, law enforcement in and around the protected areas created by the government still leaves much to be desired. Ecoguards dispatched to ensure law enforcements within these protected areas are not only  limited in supply relative to the surface area of the protected areas but are also not well equipped.

We have the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary with a surface area of 8000hecatres with only nine Forest Guards. This protected area is surrounded by some 11 villages who have access into the area making it difficult for any effective law enforcement to be carried out. In a chat with the Conservator of the Mount Cameroon National Park recently, he hinted that the park covers 58,178 hectares cutting across 41 villages with about three to five inlets with a 130 km boundary. This according him, needs over 500 eco-guards to guard entry into the park, a venture the conservator said is virtually impossible.

Discussing with  some Eco-guards on patrol at the Chimpanzee Camp in the Korup National Park a few years ago  they explained that “as guards on patrol, we are on a war front and can be attacked at any time; the poachers are our enemy but most of them like the elephant hunters,  have very sophisticated guns and are brutal…but see us; a group of persons on patrol in a class ‘A’ park in Cameroon with one gun produced since 1939-during the Second World War…how do we face such a situation?  Look at the recent elephants killing in the Bouba Ndjida National Park; if Eco-guards were well armed such destruction would not have taken place. The government has given us the best of training but has failed to equip us; you can’t send somebody to the war front without weapons!”

This, and the none provision of alternative sources of livelihood to forest adjacent communities have left many critics wondering if Cameroon is really serious about placing 30% of its territory as permanent forest or simply joking?

B. Shancho Ndimuh

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Plastics Dilemma in Cameroon Four Years After Ban; Prospects & Challenges

There seem to have been a cold war between agents of the Ministry of Environment, Protection of Nature and Sustainable Development (MINEPDED) and dealers in plastics below 61 microns ever since April 24, 2014 when the Cameroon Government placed a ban on the production, importation and sale of non-biodegradable plastics in the country.

Plastic waste, an increasing menace in Cameroon

In what has turned out to be a typical cat and mouse game, these banned plastics are visibly still very much in circulation despite incessant sensitisation and repressive measures by the government.  For instance statistics gathered from the Southwest Regional Delegation of MINDEPDED in the early months of 2016 indicated that  over 2 million francs CFA has collected as fines with over 200 dealers detained, yet almost every retail shop in the country sells with these plastics on a daily bases.

While the government has successfully stopped the production of this category of plastics, the country’s borders remains porous given a lee way for the smuggling of these plastics from neighbouring countries, where production and circulation is still very much legalised.

Menchum Division in the Northwest Region of Cameroon is one of the key access routes through which these banned plastics get into Cameroon. This Division has three Subdivisions bordering Nigeria including  Furu Awa Subdivision, Fungom Subdivision, and Menchum Valley Subdivision, which are so porous that people just stroll normally with the plastics into the country.

In an interview granted The Green Vision recently, the Menchum Divisional Delegate of Environment, Protection of Nature and Sustainable Development, Mr. Hyacinth Mboh, is really helpless with the status quo.

“It’s true we have banned plastics but our neighbouring countries haven’t;  Nigeria has not banned plastics.  Menchum has three Subdivisions bordering Nigeria, which are completely porous. The staff strength is too small that one cannot place people at all of these places.  That’s why I was telling the Ministry that if we can set up control posts in areas like that so that we can place two or three staff there to ensure that plastics don’t get into the country from those directions it will greatly help.  We thought services like custom will help us but the situation is not very good.  Some times even when you get there you won’t recognize it because it’s rapped in a container that you will not even know it’s plastics. The customs are the ones to search everything because we don’t have that legal right to stop vehicles, offload and charge. So it becomes a very complicated situation. Most of these plastics come in late in the night; sometimes at 1 am, 2 or 3am. We don’t have any control post.  We expect that when they search, they can call for us to come get and register that this amount of plastics was seized by customs but we haven’t got any of such call so I don’t know if it’s complicity or what”, the Delegate narrated his plight.

Mr. Mboh said even repeated seizure and evacuation of the plastics seems to be yielding little or no fruit.

“  2014 was the worst because that’s the year this plastic ban effectively started. We had a case;  we got this lady with about 360kg of plastics and I had to follow up to make sure that it was seized and transferred to Bamenda but I was shock to see that the lady was still bent to get back to the same business despite such a huge loss. It created a lot of problem because many market people saw the Delegation of Environment as enemy to progress because this lady seemed to have been the main supplier of plastic throughout the division. You control today , in the night the continue with their business.  When we seize, we gather and take to Bamenda but when you come back it seems you did nothing” he lamented.

smuggled plastics impounded

The Delegate disclosed that the Minister of Environment had even sent  a service note calling on him and other delegates to be more repressive, which to him is also risky.

“We are the one feeling the pinch on the ground. If I take every week say just two or three like that, my office will be hot and it will not really be easy on me because I stay with the people, my children and wife all live here with the people. They can use any means to get to me. I try as much as possible to sensitise and let the people collaborate with me such that they are even the people reporting to me that this or that person is in possession of plastics and I go and collect. Using force is not good but you ask yourself what is the result at the end of that?”, he questioned.

Anglophone Crises Weakens Repressive Measure against Plastic Dealers

Delegate Mboh, revealed , the aggressiveness with which repressive measures are intensified when the ban was placed has greatly reduced. He attributed it to the ongoing crises plaguing the two English Speaking Regions of the country.

“We have not really embarked on any seizure because of the prevailing socio-economic situation in the country. I will not want to stir up something that you may not be able to control but as of last year we seized up to 100kg of plastics, which are transported to Bda for onward transmission to Younde for certified companies that come and collect for recycling” Mr Mboh hinted.

He underscored the fact that they are not out to create problems any problem; that repressive measures only come in when the people resist. “Our objective is not to take people to court but to ensure that the plastic is controlled to the barest minimum”, he said.

Municipal Councils Sub Contracted to Combat Plastics Circulation

Meanwhile MINEPDED has resorted  to collaborating with Municipal Councils in the fight against none biodegradable plastics .

“ Right now as we speak, Wum Council has FCFA  2 million to help in this plastic repression. In the days ahead, all the councils will be there because the markets belong to the council and they can better manage the process. Besides controlling circulation, the councils will employ youth and guys who will recover lithered plastics, wash and weigh them for financial returns so the plastics can be taking to Younde for companies to buy and recycle. So we are confident that if all councils in the country are involved in this process then we are sure to succeed with the ban”, the Delegate disclosed.

More Repression than Alternative?

As to why the  Government has not been able to put in place a sustainable alternative for her citizens fours years after ban,  Delegate Mboh said there are alternatives.

“The problem with us is that we are very head strong. Each time I go to the market they say we don’t have alternative I show them these are other alternatives. The ban is on plastics less than 61 microns so anything greater than 61 microns becomes an alternative and is what you should use.  Besides these, we have leaves” , he opined.

The delegate explained that the reason why the Ministry is banning plastics less than 61 Microns is because they lither the environment, and are also used to put hot food, which may induce cancer.  He said plastics above 61 microns, are thicker and can be reused.

What about Sachet and other plastics Sources?

As to why the government is focusing only on plastics below 61 microns while biscuit, milk, whisky and other sachet  plastics also lither the environment, the Delegate stated that the minister is putting in place a plan to also track those ones down. He said Companies producing sachet products will have to apply for environmental permits within which they will stipulate clearly how these plastics sources will be recovered after use.

Mr. Mboh indicated that the Ministry has a long list of persons and companies that have applied for environmental permits.  For water distribution companies, he said they do have and environmental permits and are already mapping ways to track down their plastics.

“Tangui and Supermont have obtained environmental permits and are already getting into a memorandum of understanding with HYSACAM  for the collection of plastics. They are also putting in place a collection mechanism such that if you bring four empty bottles, they will give you one free bottle of water” he revealed.

The Divisional Delegate for Menchum surmised that in the days ahead, maximum success will be recorded regarding the management of waste plastics as  the government machines grinds slowly but surely.

By. B. Shancho Ndimuh

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Uncovering Sources of Stolen Cameroon Woods for International Markets

Illegal wood for international market. Credit: Cameroon Today

A Greenpeace Africa investigation published recently, has uncovered “a trail of stolen timber” en route to Cameroon’s main timber exporting company, Compagnie de Commerce et de Transport (CCT), for onward evacuation to the international markets.

According to a press release titled  “How Cameroon’s Stolen Wood Reaches International Markets” published on the organisation’s official website after the investigation, a timber company, La Socamba, allegedly engaged in illegal and destructive practices, including logging several kilometres outside their legal logging title supplies stolen wood to CCT, which supplies timber companies worldwide, including China and Europe.

The press release which calls on the Cameroon government to audit the activities of CCT indicates that CCT in response to Greenpeace’s investigation  admitted that Cameroon’s Ministry of Forests and Wildlife (MINFOF) had ordered an audit of the activities of CCT and its suppliers to determine their involvement in illegal activities and to trace the resulting timber. An audit, which the Greenpeace Africa forest campaigner, Eric Ini, underscored the need for the  process to be carried out in an independent and transparent manner ensuring that CCT suppliers are properly sanctioned when illegal activities will be confirmed.

This revelation is one of several others, which Greenpeace has uncovered within recent years. According to the press release, the Organisation in 2015 published three cases of illegal logging in permits supplying CCT including logging permits exploited by South Forestry Company (SFC), FEEMAM and SOFOCAM, which the Cameroon Government proclaimed innocent only for them to be incriminated later on.

“The Minister of Forestry, Ngole Philip Ngwese, has proclaimed the innocence of companies exposed by Greenpeace for their involvement in illegal logging. Yet, one of the companies investigated by Greenpeace, SFC, was later fined by the authorities twice for exactly the kind of practices Greenpeace exposed, and CCT and its suppliers are now apparently subject to an investigation by MINFOF,” the press release reads in part.

Mr. Ini implored the Cameroon Government to collaborate with the European Union, to put an end to illegal trade in Timber.

”If Cameroon is serious about ending the illegal timber trade, it must work closely with the EU towards credible implementation of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement and, as a first priority, re-establish a system of credible Independent Monitoring of Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade in Cameroon”, Ini concluded.

He equally calls on the Cameroon Government to ensure the strict reinforcement of the country’s forestry law to limit illegal timber exploitation given that countries like  Belgium, Netherlands, UK and others are already regarding trade in timber from Cameroon as “high risk” with UK operators trading in Cameroon timber being investigated.

Cameroon’s forests support the livelihoods of thousands of people and are amongst the region’s most biologically diverse forests, providing valuable habitat for endangered Western Lowland Gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, amongst other species. Unsustainable and illegal logging in these forests is leading to deforestation, destruction of the ecosystem and diminished resilience to climate change.

By B. Shancho Ndimuh

 

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Chiefs, Conservator Conflict Over Kilum Ijim Plant Life Sanctuary Fee Collection

Touristic site at Kilum-Ijim, Credit: CAMGEW

A silent conflict is raging between traditional authorities of adjacent communities and the Conservator of the Kilum-Ijum Plant Life Sanctuary over the collection of entry fee. The Kilum-Ijum Plant Life Sanctuary is a 1000 hectare protected area created by the Cameroon Government on December 8, 2004 for the sustainable management of some over 40 plant species. It cuts across Boyo and Bui Division in the Northwest Region of Cameroon with over 216 hectare Crater Lake highly fascinating to national and international tourists.

The traditional authorities on the one hand see this area as their natural heritage inherited from their ancestor while the Conservator on the other hand says he is the only one legally authorised to collect entry fee from visitors getting into the sanctuary.

The Green Vision recently caught up with the Conservator of the Kilum-Ijim Plant Life Sanctuary, Toki M. Maute, who painted a vivid picture of this conflict.

“Since the creation of this sanctuary in 2004, the local authorities have been the ones collecting entry fee into the protected area, which though not correct, was tolerated by the government. It was until 2014 when these traditional rulers were placed on a salary, that I started collecting entry fee but they did not desist from collection despite being placed on a salary” the Conservator complained.

Mr Toki explained that though many people visit the Plant Life sanctuary, very few of them are registered with him as they still prefer to pass through the traditional authorities.

“In 2014 for example, only about 30 visitors were registered despite several people visiting the plant life sanctuary. The number increased to 51 in 2015, and in 2016 the number decrease to about 17 due to the socio-economic crises in the Northwest and Southwest Regions of the Country and in this 2017 we have had slightly over seven visitors.  The traditional rulers have no right to collect entry fees” He stated.

Besides its over 40 plant species, Mr. Toki posits that the Plant Life Sanctuary is host to Lake Oku  with a depth of 52 metres and an elevation of 2,600 metres above sea level plus rare amphibians species that attract tourists into the area. He however advised if you want to visit the Sanctuary, obtain an entry ticket from the Conservator at fcfa 6000, 3000 and 1500 for foreigners, foreigners resident in Cameroon and Cameroonians respectively. An extra charge of fcfa 2000 is also given in case you have a camera or want to use a bike or a car to sail round the sanctuary.  He stated that 45% percent of the fees goes into the special fund for the development of wildlife, while 55% goes into the national treasury.

Regarding the carrying out of activities within the Sanctuary, the Conservator said no activity is normally supposed to take place within the Plant Life Sanctuary but the adjacent communities are exceptionally allowed to cultivate honey because it has no damaging effects on the Sanctuary.

The Kilum-Ijum Plant Life Sanctuary Boss said managing the Sanctuary is not a bed of roses

“The Sanctuary has no management plan over 13 years after creation; we are still crafting an initiation letter to send to the Ministry of Forestry to initiate the process of establishing a management plan for the Plant Life Sanctuary.  My working condition too is not the best. There is no office for the Conservator. I am being hosted at the Office of the Bamenda Highlands Project, which does not have light now for the past five years since I came there. There is no means of movement” he lamented. The Conservator called on the government to come to his rescue.

By B. Shancho Ndimuh

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Why Ahidjo’s Green Sahel Should Be Rejuvenated

Cameroon last Saturday June 17, 2017 joined countries the world over to commemorate the 23rd edition of the World Day to Combat Desertification, a day instituted by the United Nation General Assembly in 1994 to raise awareness of the presence of desertification and drought, highlighting methods of preventing desertification and recovering from drought.

Commemorated  under the theme “Our Land, Our home, Our future”, this day in Cameroon was marked by  tree planting around the water catchment area in Nibum, Nkwen- Bamenda organized by the Northwest Regional Delegation of Environment, Protection of Nature and Sustainable Development (MINEPDED);  a general tree planting exercise around CRTV production center and other parts of Yaounde by the Center Regional Delegation of MINEPDED ;  and tree planting at the water catchment area of Abonfen Forest beside radio talks and quizzes amongst others.  Unfortunately, no report was got of tree planting and sensitization campaign in the Far North Region of the country, where desertification is highly noticed especially given its close proximity with the Sahara Desert belt.

Though the country has over the years put in place different plans and policies to combat the rapid advancement of desert to this part of the country, the plans or policies either only end on paper or begin and is not sustained due to one reason or the other.

In the early 1970s for example, the country’s pioneer head of state President Ahmadou Ahidjo introduced the Green Sahel project where children of primary and secondary schools were, during the long vacation of each year, transported to the North for tree planting. This move saw the planting of circa 10 million trees in the North while students were given a yearly stipend, which helped them buy school needs. The project undoubtedly turned out to be one of the most successful campaigns against desertification with impact still being felt today; the North has the highest number of mango variety, thanks to the Green Sahel programme.

This operation was however short lived with many attributing it to mismanagement and lack of funds. Since the programme came to a stand-still, several tree planting exercises have been introduced in this part of the country by both the Cameroon Government and Non Governmental Organisations. Last July, 2006 for example the Government through the Prime Minister launched the National Aforestation Programme. Two years after , the second phase of this operation was launched by MINEPDED with thousands of trees planted and today the government, through the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife (MINFOF), is working more with local councils to ensure the planting of trees in respective municipalities. The sustainable management of these trees however remains a cause for concern.

As temperatures continue to rise these impacts are expected to become more profound throughout the century. Whilst the north gets hotter and drier with Cameroonians  reportedly migrating to  neighbouring countries or further south in search of arable land, increased temperatures in Southern Cameroon and heavy rainfalls are already inducing wide spread flooding in this area.

It is therefore very imperative for the government and other stakeholders to rejuvenate the Green Sahel Programme ensuring the full involvements of students, NGOs and other key stakeholders to aggressively embark on tree planting in all ten regions of the Country most especially in the Far North, North Adamawa, North West And West, which are already witnessing desertification.

B. Shancho Ndimuh

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Abongphen Forest in Real Big Trouble; May Disappear in Five Years!

Abongphen Forest on fire (Credit: Kedjum-Keku)

Often referred to as the Tubah Upland forest, the   hitherto circa 4000 acre forest hosting some of the last remnants of the most endangered chimpanzee subspecies, the Nigeria Cameroon Chimpanzee, and serving as the only source of drinking water to over 100,000 Cameroonians, has been reduced to circa 200 acre and may disappear within the next five years if desperate and urgent actions are not taking now!

In an interview granted this reporter, June 27, 2017, the Executive Director of the Kedjom-Keku Conservation Association for Sustainable Development, Martins Mikes, gave a panoramic view of the plight of this biodiversity hot spot.

 “one of the biggest threats to the forest is the totally wrong approach by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, who opened up road to this forest; for instance, the population has increased like ten times in the last six months just because of the road. Ndawara is also another threat.  He rented some 2000 hectares from the former fon of Big Babanki (who was even burnt by the villagers because of this) but never gave back despite losing the case in 2012; he is instead increasing his plantation and extending to the Abongphen Highland Forest and the forest towards this area is gone because he’s got thousand of cows there and a big plantation, and to remove him is very difficult,” he quipped

The Kedjom-Keku Executive Director also painted vivid picture of how poaching and farming is gradually taking this key watershed shed to its early grave

“Poaching is going on there but there are not so many poachers  because most of the animals have already been hunted.  The biggest challenge is actually the turning of forest in to farmlands and residents. The villagers are selling the land to local cooperatives, lawyers, rich people etc. With all these, the forest is going to disappear latest in five years,” Mr. Mikes expounded

Besides hosting the Nigerian Cameroon Chimpanzees, the area is also quite important for bird diversity. There are over 100 species of birds of which a high percentage are endemic. They are also a good number of endemic reptile, amphibian, insect and plant species.

The Kedjom-Keku boss stated that the pressure exerted on the Abongphen Forest and its biodiversity, has short and long term effects on the neighbouring communities.

“The area is the only watershed area in Tubah Subdivision supplying water directly to about 100,000 people and indirectly to millions of people. It has over 100 springs and they are already getting dried. This is the first year the majority of the streams got dried; this has not happened before.   I think it needs really serious and fast action to stop the deforestation otherwise in the next five years, thousands of people will suffer” he stated

 

Intervention of Kedjom-Keku Conservation Association for Sustainable Development

The Kedjom-keku Conservation Association for Sustainable Development, is a Cheq Republic based NGO working in Tubah Upland Forest with main focus to safe and restore this forests through tree planting, sensitization, and alternative livelihood provision.

This association have constructed a conservation centre in the forest area with a primary school, trained local bee farmers on bee keeping for a pilot project, established  demonstration farms and forest plot and Planted thousands of trees around the already drying streams. The Chief Executive Officer, Martins Mikes, says the greatest set back to the realization of the Organisation’s  goal is little or no law enforcement.

“We are trying to work in collaboration with MINFOF and to inform them of what’s happening on the ground daily but corruption is a whole issue. For example we saw a truck with planks, inform the Chief of Post  about what is happening but he let the people pass. All the farmers break the law!” he lamented

The Abongphen (Tubah Uplnad) Forest is located a few kilometers away from the Bamenda with an altitude between 1500-2300m,  surrounded by villages like Bambui, Small Babanki (Kedjom-Ketinguh), Big Babanki (Kedjom Keku) and Filge .

By B.  Shancho Ndimuh

Abongphen Forest on fire (Credit: Kedjum-Keku)

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